Stress strain curve: Definition, Terminologies, Types , Drawing

Stress strain curve: Definition, Terminologies, Types , Drawing

What is Stress strain curve?

Stress strain curve is a graphical representation of the relationship between stress and strain in a material. It is commonly used to characterize the mechanical behavior of materials and is essential in fields such as materials science, engineering, and physics.

The stress strain curve is typically obtained through a tensile test, where a specimen of the material is subjected to an increasing axial load (tensile force) until it reaches failure.

Stress strain curve stages
stages in stress strain curve in obtained through tensile test

During the test, the applied load and the resulting deformation (strain) are measured.

The stress (σ) is defined as the force (F) applied to the specimen divided by the cross-sectional area (A) of the specimen:

σ = F / A

The strain (ε) is defined as the change in length (∆L) of the specimen divided by its original length (L):

ε = ∆L / L

stress strain curve for mild steel
stress strain curve engineering bro
stress strain curve

What is stress according to stress strain curve :  

Stress refers to the internal force or load experienced by a material or structure when subjected to external forces or loads. It is a measure of the intensity of the internal forces within the material that develops in response to the applied external forces.

Stress can be further categorized into different types based on the nature of the forces and the resulting deformations in the material:

1. Tensile Stress: 

Tensile stress occurs when forces act to stretch or elongate a material. It is represented by a force per unit area and is typically measured in units of force per square area (such as pascals or pounds per square inch).

Tensile stress Obtained on stress strain curve

2. Compressive Stress: 

Compressive stress is the opposite of tensile stress and occurs when forces act to compress or shorten a material. Like tensile stress, it is expressed as a force per unit area.

Compressive stress obtained through Stress strain curve

3. Shear Stress: 

Shear stress arises when forces act parallel to the surface of a material, causing one layer of the material to slide or deform relative to adjacent layers. It is also measured in units of force per unit area.

shear stress obtained through stress strain diagram

What is Strain according to stress strain curve :  

Strain refers to the measure of deformation experienced by a material in response to applied stress or external forces. It quantifies the change in shape or size of a material due to the applied loads.

Strain is typically expressed as a ratio or percentage change in the dimensions of a material relative to its original dimensions. It represents the amount of deformation experienced by the material and is calculated by dividing the change in length, area, or volume by the original length, area, or volume.

There are different types of strain depending on the type of deformation:

1. Tensile or Compressive Strain: 

Tensile or compressive strain measures the elongation or compression of material along the direction of the applied force. It is calculated as the change in length divided by the original length.

Tensile and Compressive strain through stress strain diagram

2. Shear Strain: 

Shear strain represents the angular deformation or change in shape of a material due to forces acting parallel to its surface. It is calculated as the change in the angle between two originally perpendicular lines within the material.

shear strain through stress strain curve

3. Volumetric Strain: 

Volumetric strain measures the change in volume of a material due to applied forces. It is calculated as the change in volume divided by the original volume.

Volumetric strain through stress strain curve

Strain is an important parameter in engineering design and analysis. Engineers use strain measurements to assess the performance and behavior of materials under different loads and conditions. 

It helps in determining the material’s elastic or plastic deformation characteristics, as well as its resistance to failure. By understanding the strain experienced by a material, engineers can optimize designs, select appropriate materials, and ensure the structural integrity and safety of mechanical components and systems.

Stress Strain curve terminologies

The stress strain curve is then constructed by plotting stress on the y-axis and strain on the x-axis. The resulting curve typically exhibits several distinct regions:

1. Elastic Region: 

At low stress levels, the material deforms elastically, meaning that it returns to its original shape when the load is removed. In this region, the stress-strain relationship follows Hooke’s law, which states that stress is proportional to strain: σ = Eε, where E is the elastic modulus (also known as Young’s modulus).

2. Yield Point: 

When the stress exceeds a certain threshold, known as the yield point, the material undergoes plastic deformation. In this region, the material experiences permanent deformation even after the load is removed.

3. Plastic Region: 

Beyond the yield point, the material continues to deform plastically, and the stress-strain relationship is no longer linear. The material may exhibit strain hardening, where the stress required to produce additional deformation increases.

4. Ultimate Tensile Strength: 

The ultimate tensile strength is the maximum stress the material can withstand before failure. It represents the peak of the stress-strain curve.

5. Fracture: 

Eventually, the material reaches a point of fracture where it fails under the applied load.

The exact shape and characteristics of the stress-strain curve depend on the material’s properties, such as its composition, microstructure, and processing conditions. Different materials exhibit different types of stress-strain behavior, including brittle, ductile, and viscoelastic responses.

Stress strain curves are valuable for understanding material properties, predicting structural behaviour, designing components, and selecting materials for specific applications.

Stress strain curve for Ductile material

A ductile material is one that exhibits significant plastic deformation before fracture, allowing it to absorb energy through plasticity. The stress-strain curve for a ductile material typically follows a distinct pattern:

Stress strain curve for Ductile material

1. Elastic Region: 

Similar to other materials, the stress-strain curve for a ductile material begins with an elastic region. In this region, the material deforms elastically, obeying Hooke’s law, and the stress-strain relationship is linear. The curve shows a proportional increase in stress with increasing strain, indicating that the material behaves elastically and can return to its original shape upon the removal of the applied load.

2. Yield Point: 

As the stress increases, the ductile material enters the yield point region. At this point, the material begins to undergo plastic deformation, and the stress-strain curve deviates from linearity. The yield point represents the stress level at which the material starts to exhibit permanent deformation. In some ductile materials, there may be a well-defined yield point, known as the yield strength. However, in other cases, there may be a yield plateau where the stress remains relatively constant before continuing to increase.

3. Plastic Region: 

Beyond the yield point, the stress-strain curve enters the plastic region. In this region, the material continues to deform plastically, and the stress increases with strain. The curve shows a more gradual slope, indicating that the material is undergoing significant plastic deformation. Ductile materials can sustain high strains without significant loss in stress and exhibit good energy absorption capabilities.

4. Necking: 

As the plastic deformation continues, the stress-strain curve may reach a point of localized necking. Necking refers to a reduction in the cross-sectional area of the material, resulting in a localized region of high strain and reduced stress. The necking phenomenon is characteristic of ductile materials and indicates that the material is approaching its ultimate tensile strength.

5. Ultimate Tensile Strength: 

The stress strain curve reaches its peak at the ultimate tensile strength (UTS). The UTS represents the maximum stress that the ductile material can withstand before failure. At this point, the material is under high stress, and necking may be pronounced. The UTS is an important parameter for assessing the strength of a ductile material.

6. Fracture: 

Following the UTS, the stress-strain curve starts to decline, indicating a decrease in stress. Eventually, the curve reaches a point of fracture where the material fails under the applied load. Fracture in ductile materials typically occurs with significant plastic deformation and elongation, as opposed to sudden, brittle failure.

 

The specific shape and characteristics of the stress-strain curve for a ductile material can vary depending on factors such as the material’s composition, microstructure, and processing conditions. Different ductile materials may exhibit variations in the yield behavior, strain hardening, and necking characteristics.

Stress strain curve for brittle material  

Brittle material refers to a substance that exhibits minimal plastic deformation before fracture. When subjected to stress, brittle materials typically fail suddenly and without significant warning. 

The stress strain curve for brittle materials typically shows distinct characteristics compared to other types of materials, such as ductile materials.

Stress strain curve of Brittle material

Here is a general description of the stress-strain curve for a brittle material:

1. Elastic Region: 

At the beginning of the stress-strain curve, the material deforms elastically, meaning that it behaves linearly and returns to its original shape when the load is removed. The stress-strain relationship follows Hooke’s law in this region.

2. Elastic Limit: 

The elastic limit is the maximum stress level that a brittle material can withstand without permanent deformation. If the stress exceeds this limit, the material will not return to its original shape once the load is removed.

3. Fracture Point: 

Unlike ductile materials, which exhibit a plastic region, brittle materials do not display significant plastic deformation. Instead, they reach a fracture point relatively early in the stress-strain curve. The fracture point represents the stress at which the material breaks.

4. Brittle Fracture: 

Once the stress exceeds the fracture point, the brittle material fails abruptly and without warning. Fracture in brittle materials is characterised by little or no plastic deformation, and the resulting fracture surface appears relatively clean and smooth.

In a stress strain curve for a brittle material, the elastic region is often short, and the curve tends to be steep. The absence of significant plastic deformation and the sudden failure make the stress-strain curve for brittle materials distinct from that of ductile materials.

It’s important to note that the stress-strain behaviour of brittle materials can vary depending on factors such as temperature, loading rate, and material composition. Additionally, the precise shape and characteristics of the stress strain curve for a specific brittle material will depend on its unique properties.

Stress Strain curve for Mild steel  

Mild steel is a commonly used type of carbon steel that exhibits a combination of strength, ductility, and affordability. The stress strain curve for mild steel typically follows a specific pattern:

stress strain curve for mild steel

1. Elastic Region: 

Similar to other materials, the stress strain curve for mild steel begins with an elastic region. In this region, the material deforms elastically, obeying Hooke’s law, and the stress strain relationship is linear. The curve shows a proportional increase in stress with increasing strain, indicating that the material behaves elastically and can return to its original shape upon the removal of the applied load.

2. Yield Point: 

As the stress increases, mild steel enters the yield point region. At this point, the material undergoes plastic deformation, and the stress strain curve deviates from linearity. The yield point represents the stress level at which the material begins to exhibit permanent deformation. Mild steel typically shows a well-defined yield point, known as the yield strength.

3. Plastic Region: 

Beyond the yield point, the stress strain curve enters the plastic region. In this region, the material continues to deform plastically without a significant increase in stress. The curve shows a more gradual slope, indicating that the material is undergoing plastic deformation. Mild steel exhibits good ductility, allowing for significant plastic deformation before failure.

4. Ultimate Tensile Strength: 

The stress strain curve reaches its peak at the ultimate tensile strength (UTS). The UTS represents the maximum stress that mild steel can withstand before failure. At this point, the material is under high stress but may exhibit localized necking or thinning.

5. Fracture: 

Following the UTS, the stress-strain curve starts to decline, indicating a decrease in stress. Eventually, the curve reaches a point of fracture where the material fails under the applied load. Fracture in mild steel can occur in a ductile manner, characterized by necking and elongation before the final failure.

It’s important to note that the stress-strain behavior of mild steel can be influenced by various factors, including the composition, heat treatment, and manufacturing processes. The specific shape and characteristics of the stress strain curve may vary depending on the specific grade of mild steel and its processing history.

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